Lingzhi mushroom:Other Cultivated Species:(7).Ganoderma atrum.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Lingzhi mushroom other cultivated species,(7).Ganoderma atrum.J.D.Zhao, ①.Amauroderma ruda (Berk.) Pat, or ②.Amauroderma rogosum (Bl.et Nees) Bres, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these cultivated fungus species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these cultivated fungus species, the features of these cultivated fungus species, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Lingzhi mushroom:Other Cultivated Species:(7).Ganoderma atrum.

 There are about 250 kinds of Fungus of the Ganoderma genus, in China, there are almost 98~100 species of fungus found to belong to the 4 Ganoderma genera, and Ganodermataceae family, they grow and spread from south to north.

 Except for the species which defined and recommended by Common herbal classics, (1).Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss.ex Fr.) Karst.,or (2).Ganoderma sinense Zhao, Xu et Zhang. There are several other species of Ganoderma cultivated in China nowadays, they are known including species: (3).Ganoderma tsugae, (4).Ganoderma hainanense, (5).Ganoderma multiplicatum, (6).Ganoderma tenue, (7).Ganoderma atrum., (8).Ganoderma shandongense. These commonly cultivated species are introduced:

(7).Ganoderma atrum.


 Ganoderma atrum.J.D.Zhao. Pin Yin Name: Hēi Zhī,or Hēi líng zhī.
 English Name: Black Ganoderma.
 Latin Name: Ganoderma atrum.
 Property and flavor: neutral nature, tastes light or tasteless.
 Botanical description: Ganoderma atrum.J.D.Zhao is a fungus of the Ganodermataceae or Polyporaceae family and Ganoderma genus, is commonly known as Black Ganoderma, or Hēi líng zhī (means Black Ganoderma), common herbal classics define it as the fruiting body of 2 species: ①.Amauroderma ruda (Berk.) Pat, is also known as Zhou Gai Wu Zhi, or ②.Amauroderma rogosum (Bl.et Nees) Bres, is also known as Wu Zhi ("Wu or Hei" means black). These two species are introduced.

 ①.Amauroderma ruda (Berk.) Pat.: it is also known as Zhou Gai Wu Zhi; the encarpium (fruiting body) is annual, petiolate; the pileus (cap) is rounded to orbicular (subrotund), sometimes irregularly shaped, and 3–13 cm wide; the pileus (cap) has inconspicuous husk, hazel (pale brown), dark brown (blackish-brown) to black, tomentulose (mucoreous), with radial wrinkles; the edge is neat or undulated; the tube orifice is white, turns red or prunus (violet red) when it is injured, and then turns black; the tube orifice is corniform (angular shape), 4–6 for each 1 mm; the fungus tube is singlelayer, short, and dark; the prosthecae are mesic, slanting sideways to nearly pleurogenous, often tortuose (contorted), taupe (grayish-brown) to pullous (nearly black.), (3.5–8) cm × (0.5–1) cm; the context is yellowish white, turns reddish-violet when it is injured, and later turns black.

 The mycelial system is a three-body type: generative hypha is colorless and has a clamp connection.

 The spores are broadly elliptical to subsphaeroidal (near-spherical), double wall, the outer wall is smooth and colorless, the inner wall is slightly coarse or verruculose, hazel (pale brown), (8–10)μm × (6–7)μm.

 ②.Amauroderma rogosum (Bl.et Nees) Bres.:it is also known as Polyporus rugosus Bl.et Nees., or Wu Zhi; the pileus (cap) is reniform and has lateral prosthecae, sometimes rounded, and mesic prosthecae; hard suberinite, oblate, tomentulose (mucoreous) or smooth, dark greenish brown or maroon (dark grayish brown) to dark gray or grayish-black, with concentric annule and inconspicuous radial wrinkles, 2–15 cm wide, 5–10 mm thick; the edge is sharp or truncated, undulated; the context is in faint color, 1.5–6 mm thick; the length of the fungus tube is 2–6 mm, the color is darker than the context, and the tube orifice is nearly white, after the injury, it turns sanguine, and circular (rounded), with an average of 6 per mm (millimeter); the prosthecae are cylindrical, often curved, the same color as the pileus (cap), tomentulose or smooth, 5–40 cm long, 2–14 mm in diameter, have rhizoid (pseudorhiza), sometimes bifurcated; the spores are torulose (subsphaeroidal), faint yellow (pale yellow), (8.5–11) μm × (8–9) μm.

 Ganoderma atrum.J.D.Zhao. Ecological Environment: Ganoderma atrum.J.D.Zhao grows in the forest and mountains. This species is mainly distributed in Baisha County and Ba Wang Ling of Hainan Province, Guangxi, Yunnan, Guizhou in China. This species has functions to enhance immunity, inhibit tumors, improve liver detoxification, improve the cardiovascular system, anti-aging, etc.

 Growth characteristics: ①.Amauroderma ruda (Berk.) Pat grows on the ground or in buried wood in forests. ②.Amauroderma rogosum (Bl.et Nees) Bres grows on the ground and adheres to the decaying wood in the soil.

 Characters of herbs: ①.Amauroderma ruda (Berk.) Pat.: or Zhou Gai Wu Zhi, the pileus (cap) is reniform or quasi-circular (similar circular), 3–10 cm in diameter, and 5–7 mm thick. The surface is taupe (grayish-brown) or brown, tomentulose (mucoreous), and has radial deep wrinkles and inconspicuous ring patterns, sharp edges, undulated, and mostly valvular dehiscent. The pore surface is white, black, or dark brown. A single layer of fungus tubes is visible in the longitudinal section. The prosthecae is slanting sideways, cylindrical, curved, 4–12 cm long, 3–10 mm in diameter, and a rhizoid (pseudorhiza) grows at the lower part, the same color as the pileus (cap), tomentulose (mucoreous). Suberinite. The smell is mild, and the taste is mild.

 ②.Amauroderma rogosum (Bl.et Nees) .: or Wu Zhi, the diameter of the pileus (cap) is 2–15 cm, the thickness is 5–10 mm, the surface is bluish-brown, maroon (dark grayish brown), or grayish-black, tomentulose (mucoreous) or smooth, with concentric ring patterns and inconspicuous radial wrinkles. The pore surface is dark brown. The prosthecae are smooth and have a rhizoid (pseudorhiza). Hard suberinite. The smell is light, and the taste is mild.

 Medicinal efficacy: Benefit the kidney, diuretic, removing Qi stagnation or food retention, it is indicated for acute nephritis, chronic nephritis, dyspepsia (indigestion), etc.

 Administration of Black Ganoderma(Hēi líng zhī): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Black Ganoderma(Hēi líng zhī)
TCM Books: Internally:water decoction, 10~15 grams.

 

 
  

 

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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Ling Zhi:Lucid Ganoderma or Ganoderma Lucidium.
  • 2.Lingzhi mushroom:Other Cultivated Species,Ganoderma atrum.

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