Introduction of Shui Hong Hua Zi:Prince's-feather Fruit or Fructus Polygoni Orientalis.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Prince's-feather Fruit, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Polygonum orientale L., and another usable plant species, ②.Polygonum lapathifolium L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Prince's-feather Fruit, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Fructus Polygoni Orientalis(Prince's-feather Fruit).

Fructus Polygoni Orientalis:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Shuǐ Hónɡ Huā Zǐ.
 English Name: Prince's-feather Fruit.
 Latin Name: Fructus Polygoni Orientalis.
 Property and flavor: slightly cold, salty.

 Brief introduction: The herb Fructus Polygoni Orientalis is the dried ripe fruit of Polygonum orientalis L., used to eliminate blood stasis in the treatment of abdominal pain and relieve epigastric pain due to food stagnation. The herb is commonly known as Fructus Polygoni Orientalis, Prince's-feather Fruit, Shuǐ Hónɡ Huā Zǐ.

 Botanical source: The herbal classic book defined the herb Fructus Polygoni Orientalis(Prince's-feather Fruit) as the dried ripe fruit of the species (1). Polygonum orientale L. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb Fructus Polygoni Orientalis(Prince's-feather Fruit) as the fruit of the species (1). Polygonum orientale L., (2). Polygonum lapathifolium L. They are plants of the Polygonum L. Genus, the Polygonaceae family (smartweed or buckwheat family) of the Polygonales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Polygonum orientale L.

 Polygonum orientale L.:flowering plant Botanical description: Polygonum orientale L., is commonly known as Hóng Liǎo. An annual herb, the plant grows up to 1~3 meters high. The stem is upright, hollow, multi-branched, or the upper part is multi-branched (many-branched), densely covered with pilose.

 Leaves are alternate; ocrea (leaf sheath of stipule) is tubular (tube-shape), the lower part is membraneous, brown, the upper part is herbaceous (grasslike), covered with pilose, the upper part often outspread to ringlike wings; leaf blades are oval (egg-shaped) or broadly ovate, 10~20 cm long, 5~12 cm wide, apex is acuminate, the base is orbicular, rounded or subcordate (nearly cordate), entire, both surfaces are sparsely pubescent, veins are densely pubescent; Petioles are 2~10 cm long, with spreading villous; Stipules are tubular, membranous, 1~2 cm long, villous, with long cilia, usually has herbaceous, green wings along the apex.

 Polygonum orientale L.:flowering plant Racemes are spicate, formed by many spikelets, apical or axillary, 3~7 cm long, flowers are compact, slightly pendulous, usually, several flowers form paniculate; Bracts are broad-ovate or broadly funnelform, 3~5 mm long, herbaceous (grasslike), green, pubescent, with a long edge, 3~5 flowers per bract; Pedicels are longer than bracts; Perianth is deeply 5-parted, pink or white; Tepals are elliptic, 3~4 mm long; usually 7 stamens, longer than perianth; floral disc is conspicuous; 2 styles, lower part and middle part connate, longer than perianth, stigma is capitate.

 Achenes are orbicular (sub-circular), biconcave, flat, 3~3.5 mm in diameter, dark brown or black, glossy (lustrous), enveloped in persistent perianth. Its flowering period is from June to September, the fruiting period is from August to October.

 Polygonum orientale L.:flowering plant Ecological Environment: Polygonum orientale L., is widely distributed throughout China, and also is distributed in Southeast Asia, Europe, and Oceania. Wild or cultivated. It grows on ditch sides, wetlands, around villages, and roadsides, in areas at altitudes of 30~2,700 meters above sea level.

 Growth characteristics: Polygonum orientale L., prefers a warm and humid environment, the requirements of adequate light. Its adaptability is very strong, its soil requirement is not strict, the plant adapts to soil of all sorts of types, prefers fertile, moist and loose soil, but also can bear barren soil. It is both water-loving and drought-tolerant. It often grows in valleys, roadsides, dikes of fields, grasslands, and wetlands on both sides of rivers. The plant has strong vitality, almost no diseases, and insect pests.

 Prince feather Fruit:herb photo Characters of herbs: The achenes are oblate form (flat circular shape), 3~4 mm or 2-3.5 mm in diameter, and about 1 mm or 1~1.5 mm thick. The surface is brownish-black, brown, or reddish brown, smooth and shiny (glossy), slightly biconcave, and slightly longitudinal protuberant in the middle part, there is protuberant stylopodium at the apex, yellow spotted carpopodium (fruit stalk) marks at the base, and some has residual ash gray membranous perianth. The texture of the herb is firm and hard. Except for the pericarp, an oblate seed is visible, which is enveloped by a light brown membranous spermoderm (seed coat), a light brown protuberant micropyle at the tip, and a round hilum at the base. The endosperm is white, powdery, and the embryo is thin and tiny, and curved, located around the endosperm. The herb has a slight odor, it tastes mild or slightly pungent. The herb of a better grade has big, full grains, and brownish-black.

 Polygonum orientale L.:flowering plant Pharmacological actions: ①.anti-tumor effect; ②.antibacterial effect; ③.diuretic effect.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dissipate blood stasis and eliminate mass, invigorate blood circulation, removing Qi stagnation or food retention and analgesic, invigorate spleen and remove dampness through diuresis, clear heat and detoxify, and improving eyesight. It is indicated for abdominal mass and lump in the abdomen, hypochondriac abdominal accumulation, lump gall swelling pain, dyspepsia and indigestion, dropsy in belly, stomachache, epigastric distention pain, abdominal distention and poor appetite, pinkeye, sore and swelling, scrofula, etc.

 Administration of Fructus Polygoni Orientalis (Shuǐ Hónɡ Huā Zǐ): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Fructus Polygoni Orientalis (Shuǐ Hónɡ Huā Zǐ)
TCM Books: ①.Internally: 15~30 grams. Externally:proper amount, prepare an ointment and apply stick; ②.Internally:water decoction, 2~3 qian(about 6~9 grams), big dosage up to 1 liang (about 30 grams);prepare to ground herb powder, prepare an ointment or infusing in wine. Externally:prepare an ointment or mashed and apply stick; ③.Internally:water decoction, 3~10 grams, prepare to ground herb powder, prepare an ointment or infusing in wine. Externally:proper amount, prepare an ointment or mashed and apply stick.

(2).Polygonum lapathifolium L.

 Polygonum lapathifolium L.:growing plant Botanical description: Polygonum lapathifolium L., is commonly known as Suān Mú Yè Liǎo. An annual herb, the plant grows up to 20~120 cm tall. The stem is upright, branched, and glabrous, and the nodes are swollen.

 Leaves are alternate; petioles are shorter, covered with coarse and hard bristles; ocrea is tube-shape, glabrous, the apex is truncated, with many leaf veins; leaf blades are lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate, or broadly lanceolate, 5~15 cm long, 1~3 cm wide, the apex is acuminate or pointed, often slightly blunt, base is cuneate, the upper surface is green, with large black-brown crescent spots, there are glandular spots on the under surface, there are coarse and hard bristles along midvein and leaf margin, entire; Petiole is short, shortly stiffly oppressed; Leaf-sheath is tubular, 1.5~3 cm long, membranous, pale brown, glabrous, with many veins, apex is truncate, without hairs, rarely with short hairs.

 Polygonum lapathifolium L.:growing plant Racemes are spicate, composed of several spikes, spikes are apical or axillary, 4~6 cm long, flowers are compact, usually paniculate, inflorescence axis has glandular dots or glandular hairs; bracts are funnel form, the edge is slanting sideways, and has sparse marginal seta(tricholoma), several flowers inside; Perianth is pink, viridescent (pea green), or white, usually deeply 4-parted or 5-parted, with glandular dots; perianth lobes are elliptic, outside two sides are bigger, veins are strong; 6 stamens; 2 styles, part near to base is detached, excurved.

 Achenes are oval (egg-shaped) or broadly ovate, flat, biconcave, slightly ridged, 2~3 mm long, dark brown, glossy (lustrous), enveloped in the persistent perianth. Its flowering period is from June to August, the fruiting period is from July to October.

 Polygonum lapathifolium L.:flowering plant Ecological Environment: Polygonum lapathifolium grows at field edges, roadsides, watersides, wastelands, or wetlands at ditch edges, in areas at altitudes of 30~3,900 meters above sea level. The plant is widely distributed in the areas of north and south China, it is also distributed in Europe, other areas of East Asia, and Pakistan.

 Growth characteristics: Polygonum lapathifolium is a common weed in dry and paddy fields and their surrounding areas. The suitable temperature for germination is 15~20 °C (Celsius, or 59~68 degrees Fahrenheit). In the northern area, seedlings began to emerge in late April, flowering in late June and seeds begin to mature in the middle of July. Seedlings appeared in early March in the east, flowering, and fruiting in May. In the Zhujiang river area, seedlings emerge in December, flowering, and fruiting in February. In the Yangtze River basin and the southern area, the herb seedling emerges from September to the second spring, its fruiting period is from April to May, mature before the crop fruit harvest date. Strong adaptability.
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