Introduction of Xiao Ji:Field Thistle or Herba Cirsii.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Field Thistle, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Cirsium setosum (Willd.) MB., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Field Thistle, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Herba Cirsii(Field Thistle).

dried herb pieces and segments of Herba Cirsii Pin Yin Name: Xiǎo Jì.
 English Name: Field Thistle.
 Latin Name: Herba Cirsii.
 Property and flavor: cool, sweet, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Herba Cirsii is the dried aerial part of Cirsium setosum (Willd.) MB., used (1).to cool blood and stop bleeding, chiefly for the treatment of hematuria, (2).to dissipate stasis and counteract toxin for treating boils, and (3).also used as an antihypertensive. The herb is commonly known as Herba Cirsii, Field Thistle, Xiǎo Jì.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Herba Cirsii (Field Thistle) as the dried aerial part of the species (1). Cirsium setosum (Willd.) MB. It is a plant of the Cirsium Mill. emend. Scop. genus, the Asteraceae family (Compositae, aster, daisy family) of the Campanulales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Cirsium setosum (Willd.) MB.

 flowering plants of Cirsium setosum Willd.MB with pink flowers grow in field Botanical description: Cirsium setosum (Willd.) MB is also known as Cerratula setosa Willd., Cirsium segetum Bunge., Cephalanoplos segetum (Bungge) Kitam., is commonly known as Cì ér Cài (means vegetable with thorns). A perennial herb, with creeping rhizomes. The stem is upright, grows up to 30~80 cm high, the stem is glabrous or covered with arachnoid hair. Basal leaves wither in the flowering phase; leaves on the lower part and middle part are elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate, 7~15 cm long, 1.5~10 cm wide, the apex is blunt or circular (rounded), the base is cuneate, usually is sessile, cauline leaves on the upper part is gradually small, leaf edge has dense and fine spines or spiny-tooth, all cauline leaves are the same color on both surfaces, glabrous.

 shrubs of Cirsium setosum Willd.MB with green leaves grow in field Capitulum (flower head) is solitary and grows on the tip of the stem, dioecious; the general involucre of the male inflorescence is about 18 mm long, and the general involucre of the female inflorescence is about 25 mm long; phyllaries are in 6 layers, phyllary in the out layer is very short, long elliptic-lanceolate, phyllary in the inner layer is lanceolate, apex is long pointed, with spines; corolla of male flower is 17~20 mm long, lobes are 9~10 mm long, anther is prunus (violet red), about 6 mm long; corolla of female flower is prunus, about 26 mm long, lobes are about 5 mm long, degenerate anthers are about 2 mm long.

 a shrub of Cirsium setosum Willd.MB with green leaves grow in field Achenes are elliptic or ovate-oblong, slightly flat; pappus is plumelike. Its flowering period is from May to June, the fruiting period is from May to July.

 two shrubs of Cirsium setosum Willd.MB:growing plant Ecological Environment: Cirsium setosum is a mesophyte, highly adaptable and able to grow in any climatic conditions, it is a common weed in abandoned land, arable land, roadsides, and near to villages. It is distributed nearly throughout China except for several provinces in the southwest, and Zhujiang river area. It grows in plains, hillsides, and mountains. The plant is widely distributed in the eastern and central parts of Europe, the east and west areas of Siberia, and the far east.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Cirsium setosum prefers a warm and moist climate, resistant to cold and drought. Strong adaptability, its soil requirements are not strict.

 grayish green dried herb segments of Field Thistle Characters of herbs: The stem of this herb is cylindrical, with some upper branches, 5~30 cm or 30~45 cm long, and 2~4 mm in diameter, the surface is green, grayish-green, or slightly purple-brown, with longitudinal edges and fluff; The texture of the herb is crisp, easy to break, the fracture surface is fibrous, hollow. Leaves are mostly shriveled or broken. After flattening, the intact leaves are oblong oval, or oblong-lanceolate, 3~12 cm long, and 0.5~3 cm wide; Entire or slightly undulate to pinnately parted, with fine and dense spines, the upper surface is olive-brown (greenish brown), the under surface is celadon (sage green), both surfaces have white arachnoid hairs. There are single or several capitula (flower heads) that grow apically, the general involucre is campanulate (bell-shaped), the bracts are yellowish green, in 5~6 layers, linear or lanceolate, corolla mostly fall off, and the pappus is pinnated and often exposed. The herb has a weak odor, it tastes slightly bitter. The herb of a better grade is green and foliose.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.increase blood pressure effect; ②.Hemostasis: hemostasis effect; ③.anti-mutagenicity; ④.antibacterial effect: decoction of Herba Cirsii has a certain inhibitory effect on haemolytic streptococcus, pneumococcus, and diphtheria bacillus in the test tube. Alcohol infusion has an inhibitory effect on human tuberculosis bacteria. ⑤.other effects: the decoction or tincture can excite the uterus of rabbits in vitro.

 Medicinal efficacy: Cool blood, hemostasis (stanch bleeding), disperses blood stasis, detoxify, clear heat, detumescence (reduce swelling), treating boils. It is indicated for epistaxis (nose bleeding or bleeding from five aperture or subcutaneous tissue), hemoptysis (cough up blood), hememesis (spitting blood), hematuria (blood in urine), bloody stranguria (stranguria complicated by hematuria), hemafecia (pass blood in stool), dysentery with bloody stool, uterine bleeding, acute infectious hepatitis, traumatic bleeding, furuncle, carbuncle swelling sore poison, etc.

 Administration of Herba Cirsii (Xiǎo Jì): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Herba Cirsii (Xiǎo Jì)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:5~12 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction,1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams), fresh herb 1~2 liang (about 30~60 grams),extract juice or prepare to finely ground herb powder.Externally:mashed and apply stick,or wash with water decoction; ③.Internally:water decoction, 5~10 grams,fresh herb could be used up to 30~60 grams, or extract juice.Externally:proper amount,mashed and apply stick.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions: the herb Herba Cirsii should not be prepared with ironware.




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