Introduction of Xiao Ji:Field Thistle or Herba Cirsii.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The TCM herbalism is also known as pharmaceutics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, or Chinese pharmaceutics, is the branch of health science dealing with the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of Chinese herbs. It is majorly composed of Introduction of Chinese Medicinals, Classification of Chinese Herbs, Formulas, and Patent medicines.

Classifications of Herbs:herbs regulating blood conditions,herbs hemostatics.

 TCM Herbs Icon10 Introduction: herbs regulating blood conditions,herbs hemostatics: the blood-regulating herbs are an agent or substance herbs that has the effects of regulating blood-including arresting bleeding and activating circulation-and tonifying blood.The herbs hemostatics or hemostatic herbs are an agent or substance that arrests bleeding, either internal or external.

 
Herba Cirsii(Field Thistle).

Herba Cirsii:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Xiǎo Jì.
 English Name: Field Thistle.
 Latin Name: Herba Cirsii.
 Property and flavor: cool, sweet, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Herba Cirsii is the dried aerial part of Cirsium setosum(Willd.)(family Compositae), used (1).to cool blood and stop bleeding, chiefly for the treatment of hematuria, (2).to dissipate stasis and counteract toxin for treating boils, and (3).also used as an antihypertensive. The herb is commonly known as Herba Cirsii, Field Thistle, Xiǎo Jì.

 Botanical source: Official herbal classics and other famous herbal classics defined the herb Herba Cirsii(Field Thistle) as the dried aerial part of the species (1). Cirsium setosum(Willd.)MB. It is a plant of the Cirsium Mill. emend. Scop. genus, the Asteraceae family of the Campanulales order. This commonly used species is introduced as:

(1).Cirsium setosum(Willd.)MB.


 Cirsium setosum Willd.MB:flowering plant Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Cì ér Cài(Literally it means vegetable with thorns). Perennial herb, with creeping rhizomes. The stem is arrowed, the young stem is covered by white spider silk hair. Central leaf and stem leaves are elliptic, oblong, or elliptical oblanceolate, apex obtuse or rounded, base cuneate, sometimes with a very short petiole, usually without petioles, 7~15 cm long, 1.5~10 cm wide, upper stem leaves are smaller, elliptic or lanceolate or linear, lanceolate, or all of the leaves are not divided, describing a leaf margin of acupuncture, acupuncture and close to the margin. Or leaf margin spiked, apex needling of varying sizes, up to 3.5 mm, or most stem leaves are feathery lobed or cleft or margin coarsely rounded serrated, lobes or serrated obtuse, apex obtuse, the apex of apex and lobes with longer needles, margin, and margin of lobes with shorter and adherent needles.

 Cirsium setosum Willd.MB:growing plant All stems and leaves of the same color on both sides, green or undertone pale, glabrous on both sides, rarely with a different color on both sides, above part, is green, glabrous, lower part by sparse or dense villi and gray, also rarely with the same color on both sides, grey-green, both sides by thin villi.

 Inflorescence with solitary stem tip, or plant with few or many inflorescences arranged in corymbose inflorescence on top of stem branch. Involucral bracts ovate, oblong-ovate or ovoid, 1.5~2 cm in diameter. Involucral bracts ca. 6 layers, imbricate, lengthening toward the inner layer, outer and middle layers 1.5~2 mm wide, including apex spines 5~8 mm long; Inner layer and the innermost layer is oblong to linear, 1.1~2 cm long, 1~1.8 mm wide; Middle outer bract tip with short needling less than 0.5 mm long, inner and innermost layer acuminate, membranous, short needling.

  Cirsium setosum Willd.MB:growing plant Florets are purplish-red or white, the female corolla is 2.4 cm long, the corolla is 6 mm long, tubules filamentous, 18 mm long, bisexual corolla 1.8 cm long, corolla 6 mm long, tubules filamentous, 1.2 mm long. Achene is yellowish, elliptic or oblique elliptic, compressed, 3 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, apically oblique truncate. Crown hair is dirty white, multilayer, whole shed; Crested bristles are long feathery, 3.5 cm long, tapering at the tip. Its flower period if from May to September.

 Cirsium setosum Willd.MB:growing plant Ecological Environment: Mesophyte, highly adaptable and able to grow under any climatic conditions, it is a common weed in abandoned land, arable land, roadside, and near villages. It distributed nearly throughout China except for several provinces Xizang, Yunnan, Guangdong, Guangxi. It grows in plain, hill, and mountain. The plant is widely distributed in the eastern and central parts of Europe, the east and west area of Siberia, and the far east.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Cirsium setosum prefers a warm and humid climate, resistant to cold and drought. Strong adaptability, the soil requirements are not strict.

 Field Thistle:herb photo Characters of herbs: Stem is cylindrical, some upper branches, 5~30 cm long, 0.2~0.5 cm in diameter; The surface is grayish-green or purplish, with longitudinal edges and white pilose; Brittle, easy to break, hollow section. Leaves are alternate, sessile or shortly stipitate; Leaves are shriveled or crushed, oblong or oblong-lanceolate after flattening, 3~12 cm long, 0.5~3 cm wide. Entire or microdentate cleft to pinnate deep cleft, tooth tip with acupuncture; Upper surface is greenish-brown, the lower surface is gray-green, both surfaces with white fluff. The inflorescence is single or several terminals; Involucre campanulate, bracts 5~8 layers, yellowish-green; The flowers are purplish red. Slight smell, slightly bitter taste.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.increase blood pressure effect; ②.Hemostasis: hemostasis effect; ③.anti-mutagenicity; ④.antibacterial effect: decoction of Herba Cirsii has a certain inhibitory effect on haemolytic streptococcus, pneumococcus, and diphtheria bacillus in the test tube. Alcohol infusion has an inhibitory effect on human tuberculosis bacteria. ⑤.other effects: the decoction or tincture can excite the uterus of rabbits in vitro.

 Medicinal efficacy: Cool blood, hemostasis(stanch bleeding), disperses blood stasis, detoxify, clear heat, detumescence(reduce swelling), treating boils. It is indicated for epistaxis(nose bleeding or bleeding from five aperture or subcutaneous tissue), hemoptysis(cough up blood), hememesis(spitting blood), hematuria(blood in urine), bloody stranguria(stranguria complicated by hematuria), hemafecia(pass blood in stool), dysentery with bloody stool, uterine bleeding, acute infectious hepatitis, traumatic bleeding, furuncle, carbuncle swelling sore poison, etc.

 Administration of Herba Cirsii(Xiǎo Jì): 
 
Reference: Administration Guide of Herba Cirsii(Xiǎo Jì)
TCM Books: Internally:5~12 grams(CP),Internally:water decoction,1.5~3 qian(about 4.5~9 grams),fresh herb 1~2 liang(about 30~60 grams),extract juice or grinded into fine powder.Externally:mashed and apply stick,or wash with water decoction(DCTM),Internally:water decoction,5~10 grams,fresh herb could be used up to 30~60 grams, or extract juice.Externally:proper amount,mashed and apply stick(CHMM).
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions: the herb Herba Cirsii should not be prepared with ironware.

 
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References:
  • 1.Introduction of Xiao Ji:Field Thistle or Herba Cirsii.
  • 2.TCM Books:DCTM(Dictionary of the Chinese Traditional Medicine),CHMM(Chinese Herbal Materia Medica).

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