Introduction of Xiao Ji:Field Thistle or Herba Cirsii.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Field Thistle, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source one plant species, ①.Cirsium setosum(Willd.)MB., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of this plant species, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of this plant species, the features of the herb Field Thistle, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Herba Cirsii(Field Thistle).

Herba Cirsii:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Xiǎo Jì.
 English Name: Field Thistle.
 Latin Name: Herba Cirsii.
 Property and flavor: cool, sweet, bitter.

 Brief introduction: The herb Herba Cirsii is the dried aerial part of Cirsium setosum(Willd.), used (1).to cool blood and stop bleeding, chiefly for the treatment of hematuria, (2).to dissipate stasis and counteract toxin for treating boils, and (3).also used as an antihypertensive. The herb is commonly known as Herba Cirsii, Field Thistle, Xiǎo Jì.

 Botanical source: Herbal classic book defined the herb Herba Cirsii(Field Thistle) as the dried aerial part of the species (1). Cirsium setosum(Willd.)MB. It is a plant of the Cirsium Mill. emend. Scop. genus, the Asteraceae family (Compositae, aster, daisy family) of the Campanulales order. This commonly used species is introduced:

(1).Cirsium setosum(Willd.)MB.

 Cirsium setosum Willd.MB:flowering plant Botanical description: The plant is commonly known as Cì ér Cài (Literally it means vegetable with thorns). Perennial herb, with creeping rhizomes. The stem is arrowed, the young stem is covered by white spider silk hair. Central leaf and stem leaves are elliptic, oblong, or elliptical oblanceolate, apex is obtuse or rounded, base is cuneate, sometimes with a very short petiole, usually without petioles, 7~15 cm long, 1.5~10 cm wide, upper stem leaves are smaller, elliptic or lanceolate or linear, lanceolate, or all of the leaves are not divided, describing a leaf margin of acupuncture, acupuncture and close to the margin. Or leaf margin is spiked, apex is needling of varying sizes, up to 3.5 mm, or most stem leaves are feathery lobed or cleft or margin coarsely rounded serrated, lobes or serrated obtuse, apex is obtuse, the apex and lobes are with longer needles, margin, and margin of lobes with shorter and adherent needles.

 Cirsium setosum Willd.MB:growing plant All stems and leaves of the same color on both sides, green or undertone pale, glabrous on both sides, rarely with a different color on both sides, above part, is green, glabrous, lower part by sparse or dense villi and gray, also rarely with the same color on both sides, grey-green, both sides by thin villi.

 Inflorescence with solitary stem tip, or plant with few or many inflorescences arranged in corymbose inflorescence on top of stem branch. Involucral bracts are ovate, oblong-ovate or ovoid, 1.5~2 cm in diameter. Involucral bracts have ca. 6 layers, imbricate, lengthening toward the inner layer, outer and middle layers are 1.5~2 mm wide, including apex spines 5~8 mm long; Inner layer and the innermost layer is oblong to linear, 1.1~2 cm long, 1~1.8 mm wide; Middle outer bract tip with short needling less than 0.5 mm long, inner and innermost layer are acuminate, membranous, short needling.

  Cirsium setosum Willd.MB:growing plant Florets are purplish-red or white, the female corolla is 2.4 cm long, the corolla is 6 mm long, tubules are filamentous, 18 mm long, bisexual corolla is 1.8 cm long, corolla is 6 mm long, tubules are filamentous, 1.2 mm long. Achene is yellowish, elliptic or oblique elliptic, compressed, 3 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, apically oblique truncate. Crown hair is dirty white, multilayer, whole shed; Crested bristles are long feathery, 3.5 cm long, tapering at the tip. Its flower period if from May to September.

 Cirsium setosum Willd.MB:growing plant Ecological Environment: Mesophyte, highly adaptable and able to grow under any climatic conditions, it is a common weed in abandoned land, arable land, roadside, and near villages. It is distributed nearly throughout China except for several provinces in southwest, and Zhujiang river area. It grows in plain, hill, and mountain. The plant is widely distributed in the eastern and central parts of Europe, the east and west area of Siberia, and the far east.

 Growth characteristics: The plant Cirsium setosum prefers a warm and humid climate, resistant to cold and drought. Strong adaptability, the soil requirements are not strict.

 Field Thistle:herb photo Characters of herbs: The stem of this herb is cylindrical, with some upper branches, 5~30 cm or 30~45 cm in length and 2~4 mm in diameter, the surface is green, grayish-green, or slightly purple-brown, with longitudinal edges and white hairs; The texture of the herb is brittle, easy to break, the fracture surface is fibrous, hollow. Leaves are alternate, sessile, or short-stalked, with many shriveled or broken leaves. After flattening, the intact leaves are oblong, and lanceolate, with a length of 3~12 cm and a width of 0.5~3 cm. Entire edge or slightly dentate to pinnately parted, with fine spines, the uppersurface is green-brown, the undersurface is gray-green, there is white spider silk-like pilose hair on both sides. There are single or several flower heads (capitulum) that grows terminally, the involucre is bell-shaped, the bracts are yellow-green, 5~6 layers, linear or lanceolate, the flowers are purple-red, the corolla is mostly detached, and the pappus is feather-like and often exposed. The herb has a weak odor, it tastes slightly bitter. The herb of better grade is green and leafy.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.increase blood pressure effect; ②.Hemostasis: hemostasis effect; ③.anti-mutagenicity; ④.antibacterial effect: decoction of Herba Cirsii has a certain inhibitory effect on haemolytic streptococcus, pneumococcus, and diphtheria bacillus in the test tube. Alcohol infusion has an inhibitory effect on human tuberculosis bacteria. ⑤.other effects: the decoction or tincture can excite the uterus of rabbits in vitro.

 Medicinal efficacy: Cool blood, hemostasis (stanch bleeding), disperses blood stasis, detoxify, clear heat, detumescence (reduce swelling), treating boils. It is indicated for epistaxis (nose bleeding or bleeding from five aperture or subcutaneous tissue), hemoptysis (cough up blood), hememesis (spitting blood), hematuria (blood in urine), bloody stranguria (stranguria complicated by hematuria), hemafecia (pass blood in stool), dysentery with bloody stool, uterine bleeding, acute infectious hepatitis, traumatic bleeding, furuncle, carbuncle swelling sore poison, etc.

 Administration of Herba Cirsii (Xiǎo Jì): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Herba Cirsii (Xiǎo Jì)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:5~12 grams; ②.Internally:water decoction,1.5~3 qian (about 4.5~9 grams),fresh herb 1~2 liang (about 30~60 grams),extract juice or prepare to finely ground herb powder.Externally:mashed and apply stick,or wash with water decoction; ③.Internally:water decoction,5~10 grams,fresh herb could be used up to 30~60 grams, or extract juice.Externally:proper amount,mashed and apply stick.
 Contraindications,Precautions and Adverse Reactions: the herb Herba Cirsii should not be prepared with ironware.

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