Introduction of Xianɡ Ru:Herba Elshotziae or Elsholtzia Herb.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Elsholtzia Herb, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source 2 plant species, ①.Mosla chinensis Maxim .cv. Jiangxi-angr, ②.Mosla chinensis Maxim., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plants, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plants, the features of the herb Elsholtzia Herb, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Herba Elshotziae(Elsholtzia Herb).

Elsholtzia Herb Pin Yin Name: Xiānɡ Rú.
 English Name: Elsholtzia Herb.
 Latin Name: Herba Elshotziae.
 Property and flavor: light warm, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Herba Elshotziae is the dried aerial part of Elshnoltzia splendens Nakai ex F.Maekawa., used (1).to induce sweating and resolve dampness in cases of a summer cold, (2).to cause diuresis for relieving edema. The herb is commonly known as Herba Elshotziae, Elsholtzia Herb, Xiānɡ Rú.

 Botanical source: The herb Herba Elshotziae (Elsholtzia Herb) is the dried aerial part of the Elshnoltzia splendens Nakai ex F.Maekawa, it is a plant of the Mosla. Genus, the Labiatae family (Lamiaceae, mint family) of the Lamiales order. It is also known as Chinese Mosla Herb, Herb of Haichow Elsholtzia.

 Herbal classic book defined the herb Herba Elshotziae (Elsholtzia Herb, Xiānɡ Rú) as the dried aerial part of (1).Mosla chinensis Maxim .cv. Jiangxi-angru. Other famous herbal classics defined the herb as the dried aerial part of species of the same family: (1). Mosla chinensis Maxim .cv. Jiangxi-angru, (2). Mosla chinensis Maxim. They are plants of the Mosla. Genus, the Labiatae family (Lamiaceae, mint family) of the Lamiales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced:

(1).Mosla chinensis Maxim .cv. Jiangxi-angru.

 Mosla chinensis Maxim .cv. Jiangxi-angr:flowering plant 01 Botanical description: Mosla chinensis Maxim .cv. Jiangxi-angru. is also known as Jiang Xiang Ru. The plant Mosla chinensis Maxim .cv. Jiangxi-angru is a cultivated varietas of Mosla chinensis Maxim. Herbs are upright, stems are 55~65 cm tall. The basal branch is longer, the upward branch gradually becomes shorter. The stem is four prismatic, the base is quasi-circular, the middle-upper stem is with several thin shallow longitudinal grooves, sparse pilose grows on four edges, and curly pilose grows in grooves. Leaves are opposite; the petiole is 0.7~1 cm long, covered by small cilium; the leaf blade is lanceolate, 3~6 cm long, 0.6~1 cm wide, the apex is acuminate, the base is tapering, the margin is with 5~9 pointed and shallow serrate, lateral veins are conspicuous, the upper surface is yellowish-green, pubescent, occasionally with long tomentose, the undersurface is paler, there are pilose on main veins, the remainder are pubescent, with concave glandular points on both surfaces. Racemes are densely spicate, 2~3.5 cm long, bracts are in imbricate, obovate-ovate or obovate, 5~6 mm long, 4~4.5 mm wide, the apex is mucronate, entire-edge, upper half part of the upper surface is sparsely pilose, lower part is nearly glabrous; The undersurface is densely white pilose, the upper half has densely dented glandular points, the margin is with long eyelashes, 7~9 veins, grow palmately from the base. Pedicels are 1~1.5 mm long, pubescent. The calyx is campanulate, 4 mm long, 2~2.5 mm wide, the outer is covered with white pilose and sunken glandular points, the inner surface is covered with white woolly pilose above the throat part, the lower part is glabrous, the calyx has 5 teeth, diamond-shape or lanceolate, nearly equal, about 2/3 of the full length, the base is enlarged during fruiting; Corolla is mauve (lilac), or rarely white, 0.6~0.8 cm long, extending bracts, outer is puberulent, the inner surface is covered with tufty pilose on coronal tube below the lower lip, coronal tube base is with a ring of long hairs ring, remainder veins are with sparsely short furry, lower lip middle lobe margin has irregularly crenature or sharp serrate, the apex is concave. Stamen and pistil hide inside, 2 vestigial stamens, developed, 2 anther cells are nearly equal, filaments are very short, glabrous, inserted inside corolla tube; Stigma is 2-lobed, reversed; Flora disk anterior is fingerlike dilated. Nutlet is oblate, 0.9~1.4 mm in diameter, the surface is sparsely reticulated, insula inside is flat, with warty protuberance. Its flowering period is in June, and the fruiting period is in July.

 Mosla chinensis Maxim .cv. Jiangxi-angr:flowering plant 02 Ecological environment:  the plant grows wild on grassy slopes or under forests, at altitudes up to 1,400 meters above sea level. Resource distribution: the plant is cultivated in Jiangxi Fenyi, Xinyu, and other areas, it is distributed in the east, central and southern areas, southwest, and Taiwan of China.

 Growth characteristics: Strong adaptability, the plant likes the warm environment, no strict requirements on the soil, good drainage, loose fertile soil is appropriate, low-lying easy water logging land, alkaline soil is not suitable for cultivation, better not continuous cropping.

 Mosla chinensis Maxim .cv. Jiangxi-angr:dried herb Characters of herbs: The herb is 14~30 cm long and densely covered with white short hair. The stem is branched, a tetragonal prism shape, the part near to base is round, the diameter is 0.5~5 mm; the surface is yellow-brown, the part near to base is usually red-brown, nodes are obvious, internode length is 2~5 cm, quality of the texture is crisp, easily broken, fracture surface is light yellow. Leaves are opposite, mostly dropped, shriveled or broken, the intact leaves are narrow-long lanceolate when it is flattened, 0.7~2.5 cm long, about 4 mm wide, the edge is sparsely serrate, yellow-green or dark green; the texture of the herb is fragile, easily broken. Floral whorls densely accumulated as head-shape; bracts are covered with white pilose; the calyx is bell-shaped, the front end is 5-lobed; the corolla is wrinkled or falls off. Nutlets 4, wrapped in the persistent calyx, strong fragrance, and tastes spicy cool. The herb of cultivated type is about 35~60 cm long, covered with sparse long pilose; stems are relatively thick, and internode length is 4~7 cm. The herb of better grade has fresh branches, many spikes, strong fragrance.

 The herb is collected when the leaves are flourishing, flowers just bloom, in summer and autumn, dry in shade or dry in the sun, tied up into a wisp.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.inducing perspiration; ②.antipyretic; ③.sedative; ④.analgesic; ⑤.antibacterial; ⑥.antiviral; ⑦.enhance immune function; ⑧.diuretic effect; ⑨.effect of expectorant; ⑩.antitussive; ⑾.inhibition on dermatophytes.

 Medicinal efficacy: Inducing perspiration, relieve the summer heat, activating water flowing and dissipate dampness, warm stomach and regulate the middle, prompt diuresis and eliminate swelling, indicated for cold affection in summer, headache and fever, aversion to cold without sweat, feeling of stuffiness in the chest and abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, edema, beriberi and so on.

 Administration of Herba Elshotziae (Xiānɡ Rú): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Herba Elshotziae (Xiānɡ Rú)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams; ②.water decoction, 1~3 qian (about 3~9 grams),or prepare to ground herb powder; ③.or water decoction, 3~9 grams, or prepare to pill,powder, or mouthwash with water decoction.Externally:proper amount,mashed and apply stick, 5~10 grams, water decoction; prepare to finely ground herb powder and prepared to pills, powder. Externally:proper amount, mashed and apply.

(2).Mosla chinensis Maxim.

 Mosla chinensis Maxim .cv. Jiangxi-angr:flowering plant Botanical description: The plant is also known as Orthodon chinensis(Maxim.) Kudo, or Hua Ji Ning, the herb collected from this plant source is also called Shi Xiang Ru. The plant morphological characters are similar to Mosla chinensis Maxim .cv. Jiangxi-angru., but leaves are linear-lanceolate, 1.8~2.6 cm long, 0.3~0.4 cm wide, and the margin is with 3 to 4 sparsely serrate, bracts mostly have 5 veins, corolla tube inner base has 2–3 lines of papillate or short rodlike fuzz, staminodes are not developed, 2 anther cells, one is large and another is small. Nutlets are with deep acupoint or needle-eye carving, with glandular points in acupoint nests.

 Mosla chinensis Maxim:dried herb Ecological environment:  the plant grows wild on grassy slopes or under forests, at altitudes up to 1,400 meters above sea level. Resource distribution: the plant is distributed in the east area, middle south area, Taiwan, and Guizhou of China.
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