Introduction of Chai Hu:Radix Bupleuri or Chinese Thorowax Root.

TCM Herbalism:Medicinals and Classifications. ✵The article gives records of the herb Chinese Thorowax Root, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source 2 plant species, ①.Bupleurum chinense DC., ②.Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Willd., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these two plants, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these two plants, the features of the herb Chinese Thorowax Root, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.

Radix Bupleuri(Chinese Thorowax Root).

Chinese Thorowax Root:herb photo Pin Yin Name: Chái Hú.
 English Name: Chinese Thorowax Root.
 Latin Name: Radix Bupleuri.
 Property and flavor: light cold, bitter, pungent.

 Brief introduction: The herb Radix Bupleuri is the dried root of Bupleurum chinense DC., or Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Willd.(family Umbelliferae), used (1).to reduce fever for relieving alternate spells of chills and fever, (2).to relieve liver Qi stagnation for alleviating hypochondriac and thoracic pains, and (3).to lift spleen Qi for correction of visceroptosis.

 Botanical source: The herb Radix Bupleuri(Chinese Thorowax Root) is the dry root of the (1). Bupleurum chinense DC., or (2). Bupleurum scorzonerifolium Willd., they are plants of the Bupleurum genus, the Apiaceae(or Umbelliferae) family of the Apiales order. These 2 commonly used species are introduced as:

(1).The Bupleurum chinense DC.

 Bupleurum chinense DC:plant with roots Botanical description: It is commonly known as “North Bupleurum”, the plant is a perennial herb, 45~70 cm high. It grows straight, divided or not divided. Stems erect, tufted, upper branched, and slightly “zigzag” bend. Leaves alternate; wide linear-lanceolate, 3 to 9 cm long, 0.6 to 1.3 cm wide, apex acuminate, the final was short, like the entire margin, above the green, the following is light green, with parallel pulse 7 to 9. Umbrella 4 to 10, 1 to 4 cm long, emarginate; involucral bracts missing, or 1 or 2; 5~10 small beetles, ca. 2 mm; 5 small involucral bracts; flowers are small, yellow, about 1.5 mm in diameter; calyx teeth obscure; 5 petals, apex bent inwardly into 2 toes; 5 stamens, anthers ovate; 2 styles, very short. Double hanging fruit oval-shaped, left and right flat, about 3 mm long, divided into five obvious main edges, furrows usually have 3 tubings. It is flowering from August to September, fruiting from September to October. The plant grows in dry barren hills, fields, roadside, sunny hillside roadside, shore or grass.

 Bupleurum chinense DC:plant photo Growth characteristics: Strong adaptability, the plant prefers a cold and humid climate, the resistance of cold and drought, avoid waterlogging. It grows on dry grassland, sunny hillside and bush edge, etc.

 Characters of herbs: The herb is cylindrical or oblong cone, 6 ~ 15 cm long and 0.3 ~ 0.8 cm in diameter. The root is enlarged, 3 ~ 15 stem bases or short fibrous leaf bases remain at the top, and the lower part branches. The surface is dark brown or light brown, with longitudinal wrinkles, root marks and lenticels. It is hard and tough, not easy to break, the cross-section is fibrous, the cortex is light brown, the wood part is yellow-white. It smells slightly fragrant, tastes slightly bitter. The herb which is thick and long, without fiber roots and shrubs is better.

 Pharmacological actions: ①.obvious sedative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, cooling, antitussive effect, also cholagogic, anti liver injury, anti-fatty liver effect; ②.enhance humoral immunity and immune function and has antibacterial, antiviral, and antimalarial effects; ③.reduced blood pressure, slow heart rate, and showed significant hemolysis in rats.

 Medicinal efficacy: Dispelling wind and dissipate heat, dispersing stagnated liver Qi for relieving Qi stagnation, elevating Yang Qi, clear gallbladder and prevent malaria, it is mainly indicated for the treatment of cold and fever, alternation of cold and heat, malaria, swelling and pain in the chest and hypochondria, irregular menstruation, uterine prolapse, and rectocele.

 Administration of Radix Bupleuri(Chái Hú): 
Reference: Administration Guide of Radix Bupleuri(Chái Hú)
TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams; ②.water decoction,0.8~1.5 qian(about 2.4~4.5 grams),or prepared to pill, powder; ③.water decoction, 3~10 grams, prepare to finely ground herb powder and prepared to pill, powder.Externally:proper amount, wash with water decoction or prepare to finely ground herb powder and apply.
 Precautions: the dried rhizome of Bupleurum longiradiatum Turcz is poisonous,knods grows densely on it, should not be misused as Radix Bupleuri.

(2).The Bupeurum scorzonerifolium Willd.

 Bupeurum scorzonerifolium Willd:plant and flowers Botanical description: It is commonly known as "Narrow Leaf Bupleurum", or "South Bupleurum", its root is commonly known as "Red Thorowax Root", the plant is a perennial herb, 30~65 cm high. Deep roots, no disagreement or slight disagreement, skin is reddish brown. Stems are single or several branches, the upper part of the multi-branched, smooth glabrous. Leaves alternate; root leaves and stems of the lower leaves have long-handled; leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, 7 to 15 cm long, 2 to 6 mm wide, apex acuminate, 5-7 veins, almost parallel. Compound umbel; 3~15 umbrella ternates; involucral bracts missing, or 2~3; 10~20 small umbrella stems, ca. 2 mm; 5 involucres; flowers small, yellow: 5 petals, fold; 5 stamens; ovary lower, smooth glabrous. Double-hanging fruit, oblong or oblong-ovate, 2~3 mm long, sub-fruit has 5 thick and obtuse fruit ribs, mature fruit of the furrows in the tubing is not obvious, young fruit cross-section common to each edge, there are 3 slots in the tank. Its flowering period is from July to September, fruiting in October.

 Growth characteristics: The plant grows in dry grass land.

 Characters of herbs: The roots are finer, conical, and there are many fine hairy fibers of withered leaves in the top, and there are many lower branches or slightly branched. The surface is reddish brown or black brown, and there are many fine ring lines near the root head. The quality is slightly soft, easy to break, the cross-section is slightly flat, non-fibrous. It smells of rotten oil. The herb which is thick and long, without fiber roots and shrubs is better.
Pungent-cool Exterior-releasing Herbs.

 Introduction: Pungent-cool exterior-releasing herbs: an agent or substance herbs pungent in flavor and cool in property, which is usually used for treating a wind-heat exterior syndrome.
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