Introduction of Sheng Ma:Rhizoma Cimicifuga or Largetrifoliolious Bugbane Rhizome.
✵The article gives records of the herb Skunk Bugbane Rhizome, its English name, Latin name, property and flavor, its botanical source 3 plant species, ①.Cimicifuga heracleifolia Kom., ②.Cimicifuga dahurica(Turcz.)Maxim., ③.Cimicifuga foetida L., with a detailed introduction to the botanical features of these three plants, the growth characteristics, and ecological environment of these three plants, the features of the herb Skunk Bugbane Rhizome, its pharmacological actions, medicinal efficacy, and administration guide.
- Rhizoma Cimicifuga(Largetrifoliolious Bugbane Rhizome).
Pin Yin Name: Shēng Má.
English Name: Skunk Bugbane Rhizome.
Latin Name: Rhizoma Cimicifugae.
Property and flavor: slight cold, slight sweet, pungent.
Brief introduction: The herb Rhizoma Cimicifuga is the dried rhizome of Cimicifuga heracleifolia Kom., Cimicifuga dahurica(Turcz.)Maxim., or Cimicifuga foetida L.(family Ranunculaceae), used (1).to promote eruption in the treatment of measles, (2).to clear heat and counteract toxins for treating sore throat and stomatitis, and (3).to restore the normal position of the viscera in cases of splanchnoptosis. The herb is commonly known as Rhizoma Cimicifuga, Largetrifoliolious Bugbane Rhizome, Shēnɡ Má.
Botanical source: The herb Rhizoma Cimicifuga is the dried rhizome of the species (1). Cimicifuga heracleifolia Kom., (2). Cimicifuga dahurica(Turcz.)Maxim., or (3). Cimicifuga foetida L., they are plants of the Actaea(baneberry or bugbane) genus, the Ranunculaceae(buttercup or crowfoot family) family of the Ranunculales order.
(1).Cimicifuga heracleifolia Kom.
Botanical description: The Cimicifuga heracleifolia Kom., is commonly known as "Da San Ye Sheng Ma", or "Big Triple Leaves Cimicifuga", is a plant of the Ranunculaceae(buttercup or crowfoot family) family and Actaea(baneberry or bugbane) genus, perennial herb, 1 meter high or higher. Rhizome is rough, the surface is black, there are many cave-shaped cave old stem remnants. Stems erect, glabrous, lower stem leaves ca. 2 × 3 × compound leaves, glabrous; petiole up to 20 cm, glabrous; terminal leaflets obovate or obovate-elliptic, 6~12 cm long, 4~9 cm wide, apex 3-lobed, base rounded, rounded wedge-shaped or slightly heart-shaped, margin coarsely articulate, lateral leaflets obliquely ovate, smaller than terminal leaflets, glabrous or sparsely white pilose along veins below; For a back three out of the leaves. Complex racemes with 2-9 branches; inflorescences and pedicels grayish trichomes and pilose; bracts subulate, ca. 1 mm; pedicels 2~4 mm long; bisexual; 5 sepals, petaloid, yellowish white, Obovate or broadly elliptic, 3-4 mm long, caducous; petals are free; staminode elliptic, 2.5-4 mm long, 1.6-2 mm wide, apex entire; stamens numerous, filamentous, long 3~6 mm; 3~5 carpels, with short stalk, glabrous. Fruit oblong, 5~6 mm long, 3~4 mm wide, fruit stalk length of about 1 mm. Seeds oval, about 3 mm, surrounded by membranous lepidoptera. Its flowering period is from August to September, fruiting from September to October.
Growth characteristics: The plant grows in the mountains and wild grass and gully, bushes. It mainly distributes in the north area of China.
Characters of herbs: The herb is also known as "Guan Sheng Ma"(the guan cohosh root), the rhizome of Cimicifuga heracleifolia Kom is irregularly long and multi-branched into nodules, with a length of 5~22 cm and a diameter of 2~6 cm. The surface is grayish brown or yellowish brown, rough, the stem base mark is disc-shaped or groove-shaped, the diameter is 1~3.5 cm, the height is 0.5~2 cm, and the inner wall of the disc or groove shows reticular texture; There are hard fibrous root residues at the back surface. The herb body is light and firm, not easy to break, the fracture surface is uneven, fibrous, the xylem has radial texture, yellow-brown or yellow-green, the pith part is dark-brown. The herb has slight smell, it tastes bitter. The herb which is large, the texture is firm, the surface is dark brown, is better in quality.
Botanical description: The Cimicifuga dahurica(Turcz.) Maxim., is also known as Actaea dahurica Turcz.ex Fisch.et Mey., it is commonly known as "Xing An Sheng Ma", or "Dahurian Bugbane Rhizome", it is a plant of the Ranunculaceae(buttercup or crowfoot family) family and Actaea(baneberry or bugbane) genus, perennial herb, up to 1 meter high. Rhizome stout, more curved, black surface, there are many cave-shaped cave old stem remnants. Stem erect, glabrous or slightly hairy. Lower cauline leaves of two to three back to the leaves; petiole up to 17 cm; terminal leaflets wide rhombus, 5~10 cm long, 3.5~9 cm wide, 3-lobed, basal tiny heart-shaped or round, irregular edges serrate, lateral leaflets oblong-ovate, slightly oblique, margin irregularly serrate, glabrous at above part, veined along pubescent; pubescent upper leaves resembling lower leaves, but smaller, with short-stalked. Complex racemes; flowers unisexual, dioecious, male inflorescence large, up to 30 cm, 7~20 branches, female inflorescence slightly smaller, less branched; inflorescences and pedicel gray glandular hairy and 5 pubescent sepals, petaloid, white, broadly elliptic or broadly obovate, 3~3.5 mm long, caducous; petals absent; degenerated stamen forked 2-lobed, with 1 empty anther at each end; stamens major, filamentous, 4~5 mm long, anther ca. 1 mm; 4~7 carpels, sparsely gray pilose or subglabrous, sessile or shortly stalked. fruit, length 7~8 mm, width 4 mm, apex with appressed white pilose, stalk length 1~2 mm. Seeds oval, about 3 mm, brown, membranous lepidoptera around, the central horizontal lepwing. Its flowering period is from July to August, fruiting from August to September.
Growth characteristics: The plant grows in the hillside and shady place, in the mountain forest margin, forest, or mountain slope grassland at an altitude of 300-1200 meters above sea level. It mainly distributes in the north, southwest, middle reaches area of the Yangtze river, etc.
Characters of herbs: The herb is also known as "Bei Sheng Ma"(the north cohosh root), the rhizome of Cimicifuga dahurica is an irregular long block and multi-branched into nodules, with a length of 3-13 cm and a diameter of 1.5-2.4 cm. The surface is gray-black, rough, the stem base mark is round and hole-shaped, with a diameter of 0.5~1.5 cm and a height of 1~3 cm, and the inner wall of the hole shows longitudinal or reticulated grooves; There are hard fibrous root residues at the back surface. The herb is light and firm, not easy to break, the fracture surface is extremely uneven, the xylem is radial, fibrous, yellow-green, with cracks, and the pith is hollow and black. The herb has slight smell, tastes bitter.
(3).Cimicifuga foetida L.
Botanical description: The Cimicifuga foetida L., is also known as Actaea cimicifuga L., it is commonly known as "Sheng Ma", a plant of the Ranunculaceae(buttercup or crowfoot family) family and Actaea(baneberry or bugbane) genus, perennial herb, 1~2 meters high. Rhizome sturdy, solid, black surface, there are many invaginated cave facade old stalk remnants. Stem is erect, branches branched, pubescent. Leaves two to three times three pinnately compound leaves; petiole up to 15 cm; stems of the top leaflets of the lower leaves with long handle, rhombus, length 7~10 cm, width 4~7 cm, often 3-lobed, margin serrate, side leaflets are short-stemmed or sessile, obliquely ovate, slightly smaller than the terminal leaflets, serrate margin, glabrous above, sparsely white pilose along veins at below part. Complex racemes with 3~20 branches, up to 45 cm, the lower branch is up to 15 cm; inflorescence axis densely gray or rusty glandular hairy and pubescent; bracts subulate, shorter than pedicels; flowers bisexual; 5 sepals, petaloid, obovate-orbicular, white or greenish white, 3-4 mm long, caducous; petals are free; staminode broadly elliptic, ca. 3 mm, apex dimpled or 2-lobed; 4~7 mm; 2~5 carpels, densely gray pilose, sessile or stalked. Fruit shape is oblong ball, long 8~14 mm, width 2.5~5 mm, densely appressed pilose, stalk length is 2~3 mm, short beak. Seeds are oval, brown, long 2.5~3 mm, surrounded by membranous lepidoptera. Its flowering period is from July to September, fruiting in October.
Growth characteristics: The plant prefers a warm and humid climate and often grows under the forest, in the grass on the hillside, at the edge of the forest, in the forest, or the grass along the road at the altitude of 1700~2300 meters above sea level. It mainly distributes in the southwest, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, north, northwest, the middle reaches of the Yellow River, and other areas of China.
Characters of herbs: The herb is also known as "Xi Sheng Ma"(the west cohosh root), the rhizome is an irregular long block with many branches, with a length of 3-17 cm and a diameter of 1.7-4 cm. The surface is dark brown, extremely rough, and the upper surface is covered with several round hole-shaped stem bases, with a diameter of 0.8-2.5 cm and a height of 1-2 cm, rough inner wall and shallow holes; There are many fibrous root residues at the back surface. The texture of the herb is tough, not easy to break, the cross-section is uneven, the wood part is yellow-green, radial, the pulp is slightly flat, gray-green, slightly powdery. The herb has slight smell, tastes bitter.
Pharmacological actions: ①.antipyretic; ②.anti-inflammatory; ③.spasmolysis effect; ④.analgesic; ⑤.sedative; ⑥.anti-convulsive; ⑦.other effects.
Medicinal efficacy: Inducing perspiration and prompt eruption, clear heat and detoxification, elevating Yang, it is mainly indicated for the treatment of wind-heat headache, toothache, oral ulcer, sore throat, measles without adequate eruption, Yang toxic maculae, rectocele, uterine prolapse, etc.
Administration of Rhizoma Cimicifugae(Shēng Má):
Reference: Administration Guide of Rhizoma Cimicifugae(Shēng Má) TCM Books: ①.Internally:3~9 grams; ②.water decoction,0.5~3 qian(about 1.5~9 grams), or prepare to pill, powder. Externally: grinded into powder and apply stick, mouthwash with water decoction or drip washing; ③.water decoction, for elevating Yang,3~6 grams, better prepare with honey, fried with wine, for clearing heat and detoxification, could be up to 15 grams, better use raw herb; or prepare into pill, powder. Externally: proper amount, grinded into fine power and apply stick, mouthwash with water decoction, or drip washing. To prompt eruption, detoxification better use prepared herb, to elevate Yang and reinforce Yang better use the raw herb.
Precautions: Overdosage will lead to dizziness, trembling, spasm of limbs,etc.
- Pungent-cool Exterior-releasing Herbs.
Introduction: Pungent-cool exterior-releasing herbs: an agent or substance herbs pungent in flavor and cool in property, which is usually used for treating a wind-heat exterior syndrome.
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